1.3  Inferences

Social and economic inclusion of women is a result of securing their land rights. There is a positive correlation between securing women’s land rights and their empowerment; however this shall not be full range social and economic empowerment because of intervening complex barriers in the society that are built on highly patriarchal structure. The synergies of these barriers need to be addressed to achieve inclusive development.

To address the intervening synergies that complex barriers impose against achieving the full fruition of women’s secure land rights (i.e., gender equality and women empowerment), to anchor activities that will aim at building the capacities of women and men on issues relevant to their needs, viz:

  • For women’s financial inclusion, to strengthen the capacity of women and build their confidence on areas such as small business setup and management, business proposal development, understanding the loan and credit requirements of financial institutions;
  • To strengthen and intensify communication and information campaigns geared towards strengthening the knowledge base of women and men on issues such as land rights, relevant land and family laws, and gender equality;
  • To exhaust already existing mechanisms, but have remained untapped, in communication and information campaigns on issues of relevance;
  • More inputs (e.g., trainings) to maximize the land’s productive value and equip them to respond to pressures of arable land (such as proper land use and productivity to be able to combat or adapt to climate change); and
  • To lobby concerned bodies to support women’s productivity in agriculture, or commit necessary investment to support women in agriculture.

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FAO-UN (2011). “Closing the Gender Gap in Agriculture”.
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Garvelink, William J. (2012). “Land Tenure, Property Rights, and Rural Economic Development in Africa”, Center for Strategic and Development Studies, February 17.
Kairaba, Annie (2010). “A Study on Women’s Land Rights in Africa: Rwanda Case Study”, A research paper prepared for the African Women Rights’ Observatory (AWRO) as a joint initiative of the United Nations Development Programme, Regional Gender Programme for Africa (UNDP/RGPA) and the African Centre for Gender and Social Development of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA/ACGS), October.
Kimani, Mary (2012). “Women Struggle to Secure Land Rights: Hard Fight for Access and Decision-making Power”, in Africa Renewal, Special Edition on Women 2012.
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Malhotra, Anju, Sidney Ruth Schuler, & Carol Boender (2002). “Background Paper Prepared for the World Bank Workshop on Poverty and Gender: New Perspectives”, June 28.
Mehra, Rekha & Mary Hill Rojas (2008). “Women, Food Security and Agriculture in a Global Marketplace” in Significant Shift, International Center for Research on Women,
Nancy, L., et al. (2015). “Gender, Assets, and Agricultural Development: Lessons from Eight Projects”, IFPRI Discussion Paper.
Odeny, M. (2013). “Improving Access to Land and Strengthening Women’s Land Rights in Africa”, a paper presented on the Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, April 8-11.
OECD, 2016. “Women in Africa”.
Quisumbing, A. & Pandolfelli, L. (2010). Promising Approaches to Address the Needs of Poor Female Farmers: Resources, Constraints, and Interventions, in World Development, Vol. 38 (4).
RISD (2014). “Sustainable Land Reform. Securing Land Rights: Mediation from the Ground”, Kairaba, Annie & Samuel Shearer (eds). (Kigali: Rwanda Initiative for Sustainable Development).
Rosen, Stacey & Shala Shapouri (2012). “Factors Affecting Food Production Growth in Sub-Sharan Africa”, United States Development Agency, September 20.
UN (2001). “Important Concepts Underlying Gender Mainstreaming”. (August).
World Bank (2013). “Social Inclusion: Brief”, August 15.

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